|−|Prior to reviewing a selected number of trends seen in the findings, some general aspects regarding the methodologies are summarised below. The temperature-jump ( T-jump) technique Basically as in the original studies of Goldman et al. ( 1987) and Davis & Harrington ( 1987), a laser T- jump technique was used in which a laser pulse heated a volume of aqueous solution ( >500 �� fibres�� volume) bathing the muscle fibres. The trough system, mounted [http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ azd- 1208.html AZD1208 supplier] on an optical microscope stage, consisted of three ? 50 ��l troughs milled in a titanium block and a front experimental trough with glass windows in the front and bottom (see Coupland & Ranatunga, 2003). The temperature of the trough system was kept [http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ Dapagliflozin.html Dapagliflozin concentration] foil in the back wall and raised the temperature of the aqueous medium in the trough, and the fibre immersed in it, by 3�C5��C in [http:// www. selleck. cn/ products/ NVP-AUY922.html Luminespib] the transducer was built using two AE 801 elements ( Akers, Norway) : one cut-beam element was connected to the muscle fibre ( natural resonant frequency ? 14 kHz) and the other set close- by acted as a dummy, forming a full Wheatstone bridge ( Ranatunga, 1999a). A custom-built moving-coil motor was used to produce ramp length changes in muscle fibres. Intact and skinned fibre experiments Complementary experimental findings from two different fast muscle preparations, namely tetanically activated intact fibre bundles and maximally Ca2+-activated skinned fibres, are reviewed. (1) Intact fibre bundles were isolated from fast flexor hallucis brevis muscle (Coupland & Ranatunga, 2003) of adult male rats, killed with an intra- peritoneal injection of an overdose (? 150 mg (kg body weight)? 1) of sodium pentobarbitone ( Euthatal, Rh? ne M��rieux). Small bundles of ?5�C10 intact excitable fibres were dissected from the mid- belly of a muscle and aluminium foil T-clips were fixed on the tendons within 0.2 mm of the fibre ends for mounting between hooks of the force transducer and the motor. |+|
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